Ancient Mediterranean
Greece Ancient Mediterranean : Greece
  CLAS105 • Ancient Mediterranean: Rome

E X T E N D E D   O U T L I N E




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UNIT 1 • KINGS OF ROME (753-509 BCE)
    romans etruscans Romans & Etruscans

secondary sources
  • Boatwright, Gargola, Lenski & Talbert 2011 The Romans
      1. Archaic Italy and the Origins of Rome

ancient texts
  • T. Livius (Livy) From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Ab urbe condita (From the Foundation of the City) I.3-7, 16
    who: Rhea Sylvia, Mars, Romulus and Remus, shepherd, she-wolf, Hercules
    when: ca.753 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: heroic founder, murderer of humble origin
    preface, I.1-16 (Liv.)
    program of the history; notion of decline; Hercules and Cacus/Evander (charter myth); Aeneas and Agenor (nostoi, or "return" sagas); Romulus (founding hero) and Remus vs. Amulius (tyrant); fratricide; Rape of the Sabine Women

    eponymous putative ancestors: Latinus (Latins), Iulus (Julian clan - family of the Emperors); Tiberinus (Tiber River), Romulus and Remus (Rome), etc.

    etiological myths: Aeneas worshipped as Jupiter Indiges at Lavinium; 12 lictors, curile chair, and toga praetexta borrowed from Etruscans; wedding chant ("Thalassio"); first temple (to Jupiter Feretrius); first dedication of spolia optima (arms of foreign commander captured by Roman commander); origin of names of the thirty tribes (curiae), taken from the names of the Sabine women; Romulus worshipped as Quirinus in Rome; etc.

    morals to emulate: Hostius Hostilius (valor)

    morals to avoid: Tarpeia (betrays citadel)

    multiple versions: Ascanius or Iulus as son of Aeneas; Rhea Silvia impregnated by Mars or est by someone less respectable; twins raised by she-wolf or else by a prostitute ("she-wolf"), Romulus ascends to heaven amidst Senators or else gets chopped to pieces by them, etc.

  • Liv.I.45-60
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of Rome I.56-60
    who: L. Tarquinius Superbus & Tullia, Sex. Taquinius, L. Tarquinius Collatinus & Lucretia; L. Junius Brutus
    when: ca.509 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: chastity, sexual violence of the tyrant (rex)

    Servius Tullius brings cult of Diana from Aricia to the Aventine Hill in Rome; L. Tarquinus Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), tyrant (rex) of Rome, and Sex. Tarquinius, tyrant of Gabii, vs. L. Iunius Brutus and L. Tarquinius Collatinus (founding consuls); Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; Cloaca Maxima (Great Sewer); Embassy to Delphi; Rape of Lucretia (wife of Collatinus); establisment of the Republic

    morals to emulate: Lucretia (spins wool, hospitable; preserves her chasity)

    morals to avoid: Tullia and Tarquin the Proud kill spouses and father (in-law); Tullia acclaims Tarquin as rex; Tarquin ignores the council of elders (Senate)

  • Liv.II.9-13
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of Rome II.9-13
    who: Lars Porsena, C. Mucius Scaevola
    when: ca.508 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Etruscans vs Rome; manly valor (virtus)

    Lars Porsenna of Clusium vs. C. Mucius Scaevola;
    morals to emulate: Horatius Cocles, Mucius Scaevola and Cloelia (valor)

  • Liv.V.1, 14-16, 21-23, 33
    Etruscan League abandons Veii; Romans beseige Veii; portents and embassy to Delphi; evocatio of Juno (Uni) Regina by M. Furius Camillus; Etruscan contributions to Roman civilization

  • Strabo of Amaseia Geography I.1.13 [C7-8] (Strab.)
    symmetrical balance of the edges of the world
  • Strab.I.2.8 [C18-20]
    myth vs. history
  • Strab..I.2.28 [C34]
    symmetrical balance of the edges of the world
  • Strab.I.2.35 [C42-43]
    myth vs. history; tales from the edges of the world
  • Strab.II.5.26 [C126-127]
    civilization vs. savagery

  • Diodorus of Sicily Library of History V.40 (Diod.)
    Etruscan contributions to Roman civilization
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UNIT 2 • ROMAN REPUBLIC, I (509-390 BCE)
    latins Latins

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    2. Republican Rome and the Conquest of Italy

ancient texts
  • T. Livius From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Ab urbe condita (From the Foundation of the City)
    who: Ap. Claudius Crassus, L. Verginius; L. Icilius & Verginia
    when: ca.450 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: chastity, sexual violence of the tyrant (Xvir), patricians vs plebians
    II.18-22** (Liv.)
    Rome vs. Latins & Etruscans
  • Liv.III.44-59**
    rule of the Xviri (decemvirs)
  • Liv.
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of the City
    who:
    when: ca.340 BCE
    where: Latium
    context: Rome vs Latins; patricians vs plebians
    VI-VIII** (selections)
    Rome vs. Latins; patricians vs. plebians

  • The Twelve Tables
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Latin scribe/official
    when: ca.450 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Duodecim tabulae ("12 Tables")
    who:
    when: ca.450 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: written law code (protection of vulnerable); end of nexum (debt bondage)
    ** (XII.Tab.)
    first Roman law code, traditionally attributed to the decemvirs

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UNIT 3 • EARLY REPUBLIC, II (390-264 BCE)
    Samnites & Greeks

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    3. The Beginnings of a Mediterranean Empire
ancient texts
  • T. Livius From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of the City III.26-29
    who: L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
    when: ca.450 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: office of dictator
    III.26-29**
    L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
  • Liv
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of the City IV.37, 44, 52
    who:
    when: ca.340 BCE
    where: Latium
    context: Rome vs Campanians and Samnites; Battle of Caudine Forks
    .IV.37, 44, 52
    Campanians and Samnites
  • Liv
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of the City IX.1-6
    who:
    when: ca.340 BCE
    where: Latium
    context: Rome vs Campanians and Samnites; Battle of Caudine Forks
    .IX.1-6**
    Rome vs. Samnites; Battle of the Caudine Forks (6 pgs)

  • Polybius of Megalopolis Histories
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Polybius of Megalopolis
    when: ca.150 BCE
    where: Greece
    context: Greek speaking elite; patronage of L. Aemilius Paulus and Scipio Aemilianus (hostage > collaborator)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: History XII
    who:
    when: ca.150 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: historigraphy; criticism of Timaeus as an arm-chair historian
    XII (Polyb.)
    Timaeus of Taormina, first historian of Rome (1 pg)

  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus Roman Antiquities XIX & XX (Dion.Hal.Ant.Rom.)
    Rome vs. Tarentum; Pyrrhus of Epirus; Rome vs. Mamertines of Rhegium (3 pgs)

  • Plutarchus of Chaeronea Parallel Lives: Pyrrhus
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Plutarchus of Chaeronea (Plutarch)
    when: ca.150 CE
    where: Greece
    context: Greek speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Parallel Lives: Pyrrhus 18-19, 25
    who: Ap. Claudius Caecus; Pyrrhus of Epirus
    when: ca.275 BCE
    where: Southern Italy, Rome
    context: Pyrrhic victory, valor of Rome
    18-19, 25** (Plut.Pyrrh.)
    Ap. Claudius Caecus; Pyrrhus of Epirus (3 pgs)

  • P. Vergilius Maro Aeneid
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. Vergilius Maro (Vergil)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Mantua (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Maecenas/Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Aeneid I, IV
    who: Aeneas, Ascanius, Venus, Dido
    when: ca.753 BCE
    where: Carthage
    context: heroic founder, virtus
    I** & IV.76-126, 162-180, 221-265, 296-395** (Verg.Aen.)
    Aeneas of Troy, Dido of Carthage

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UNIT 4 • MIDDLE REPUBLIC (264-201 BCE)
    Phoenicians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    4. Italy & Empire
  • A. Richlin Rome and the Mysterious Orient
    general introduction (p9-21); introduction to Towelheads (p185-199)

ancient texts
  • T. Macchius Plautus Towelheads
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Macchius Plautus
    when: ca.185 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Poenulus (The Puny Punic, aka Towelhead)
    who: Hanno (Saddam), Agorastocles (Boris), Milphio (Igor)
    when: ca.185 BCE
    where: Aetolia (Yugoslavia)
    context: standard Greek situational comedy blueprint, copied in Latin; Phoenicians (Punic) vs Roman
    ,** or Poenulus — prologue, I & V (Plat.Poen.)
    situational comedy with a Phoenician cast (Poenulus = “The Puny Punic”)

  • Polybius History
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Polybius of Megalopolis
    when: ca.150 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Greek speaking elite; patronage of L. Aemilius Paulus and Scipio Aemilianus (hostage > collaborator)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: History III, VII
    who: Hannibal, Philip V
    when: ca.215 BCE
    where: Rome, Sicily, Southern Italy
    context: treaties between Carthage & Rome and Carthage & Macedonia
    III & VII (Polyb.)
    treaties between Carthage and Rome; treaty between Carthage and Philip of Macedon

  • T. Livius From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Ab urbe condita (From the Foundation of the City) XXI
    who: Hannibal
    when: ca.215 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Rome vs Carthage (Punic War)
    XXI** (Liv.)
    Rome vs. Hannibal

  • L Junius Moderatus Columella On Rural Matters
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: L Junius Moderatus Columella
    when:
    where:
    summary:

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title:
    where:
    when:
    summary:
    ** — preface & I (Colum.)
    decline; Roman latifundiae (“rural estates”); slavery

essay
ESSAY 1
prompt
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UNIT 5 • MIDDLE/LATE REPUBLIC (201-91 BCE)
    Numidians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    5. Italy Threatened, Enfranchised, Divided

ancient texts
  • T. Livius From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Ab urbe condita (From the Foundation of Rome) V.27
    who: M. Furius Camilus
    when: ca.400 BCE
    where: Veii
    context: Rome vs Etruscans, fides
    V.27 (Liv.)
    M. Furius Camillus and fides

  • [Q. Tullius Cicero] Pamphlet on Electioneering
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Q. Tullius Cicero
    when: ca.50 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Commen(Pamphlet on Electioneering)
    who: Quintus Tullius Cicero, M. Tullius Cicero
    when: ca.50 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: how get a novus homo (“new man”) elected consul
    ** (Q.Cic.Com.pet.)
    instructions about getting a “new man” (novus homo) elected consul

  • C. Sallustius Crispus Jugurthine War
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Sallustius Crispus (Sallust)
    when: ca.50 BCE
    where: Amiternum > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, partisan of C. Julius Caesar
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Jugurthine War
    who: Jugurtha vs Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus (optimates) & C. Marius (populares) & L. Cornelius Sulla Felix (optimates)
    when: ca.112-106 BCE
    where: Numidia
    context: Rome vs Numidians, optimates (Caecilius Metellus & Sulla) vs populares (Marius)
    ** (Sall.Iug.)
    Rome vs. Jugurtha; Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus of the optimates vs. C. Marius of the populares

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UNIT 6 • MIDDLE/LATE REPUBLIC (201-91 BCE)
    macedonianssyriansbithynianspergamenes Hellenistic Kingdoms

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    6. The Domination of Sulla and Its Legacy

ancient texts
  • Dec. Junius Juvenalis Satires
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Dec. Junius Juvenalis (Juvenal)
    when: 1st/2nd CE, Flavian Era / Era of Good Emperors
    where: Aquinum > Rome
    context: representative of the Latin genre of satire
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Saturae (Satires)
    who: Umbricius
    when: 1st/2nd CE
    where: Rome > Cumae
    context: vices of Rome, corrupt Greeks and Syrians, rich & poor
    III (Iuv.)
    social critique of Greeks in Rome

  • Plutarch Life of Marcellus
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Plutarchus of Chaeronea (Plutarch)
    when: 1st/2nd CE, Flavian Era / Era of Good Emperors
    where: Boeotia > Delphi
    context: moral examples for Greek-speaking Roman citizens
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Life of Marcellus
    who: M. Claudius Marcellus, Archimedes of Syracuse
    when: 212 CE
    where: Syracuse
    context: siege and defense of Syracuse, corruption of Rome
    14-21** (Plut.Marc.)
    the sack of Syracuse and the corruption of Rome; Archimedes of Syracuse

  • Pausanias Description of Greece
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Pausanias Periegetes
    when: 2nd CE, Era of Good Emperors
    where: Greece
    context: travel guide for Greek-speaking Roman citizens
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Description of Greece
    who: C. Mummius
    when: 146 CE
    where: Corinth
    context: siege and defense of Corinth, corruption of Rome
    VII.16 (Paus.)
    the sack of Corinth and the corruption of Rome

  • Seneca Moral Essays (Sen.Dialog.)
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: L. Annaeus Seneca
    when: 1st CE, Julio-Claudian Era
    where: Corduba > Roma
    context: tutor of Nero
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Dialogi (Moral Essays)
    who:
    when: 1st CE
    where: Rome
    context: Stoic (Hellenistic) philosophy

    Stoic (Hellenistic) philosophy in Rome

  • P. Ovidius Naso Art of Love
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. Ovidius Naso (Ovid)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE, Augustan Age
    where: Sulmo > Rome
    context: imperial patronage
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Ars amatoria (Art of Love)
    who: men & women
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Rome
    context: pick-up artistís manual
    I** (Ov.Ars.)
    how to pick up wome

  • Polybius of Megalopolis
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Polybius of Megalopolis
    when: ca.150 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Greek speaking elite; patronage of L. Aemilius Paulus and Scipio Aemilianus (hostage > collaborator)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: History
    who:
    when: ca.150 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Roman constitutional balance; comparison to Carthage; explanation of Roman dominance
    VI (Polyb.)
    Greek statesman's view of how Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean; constitution of Rome 

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UNIT 7 • C. IULIUS CÆSAR (60-44 BCE)
    Celts (or Gauls)

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    7. The End of the Republic: Caesar's Dictatorship

ancient texts
  • Dec. Junius Juvenalis Satires
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Dec. Junius Juvenalis (Juvenal)
    when: 1st/2nd CE, Flavian Era / Era of Good Emperors
    where: Aquinum > Rome
    context: representative of the Latin genre of satire
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Satire 6
    who: Pudicitia (Chastity), Eppia, Messalina, Cornelia, Agrippina
    when: 1st/2nd CE
    where: Rome
    context: vices of Roman women; eunuchs (“who will guard the guards themselves?”), soothsayers/astrology, rich & poor
    VI (Iuv.)
    social critique of Roman women

  • C. Julius Caesar Gallic Wars
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Julius Caesar (Caesar)
    when: ca.50 BCE, Late Republic
    where: Rome
    context: self-promoting dictator perpetuus
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: De bello Gallico (Gallic Wars)
    who: Celts/Gauls
    when: ca.50 CE
    where: Transalpine Gaul
    context: customs of Celts/Gauls
    VI.11-28** (Caes.B.Gall.)
    customs of the Celts/Gauls

  • Strabo of Amaseia Geography (Strab.) and Diodorus of Sicily Library (Diod.)
    customs of the Celts/Gauls

  • M. Tullius Cicero In Defence of Caelius
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: M. Tullius Cicero
    when: ca.50 BCE, Late Republic
    where: Arpinum > Rome
    context: self-promoting “new man” from wealthy (mercantile) elite of equestrian ordo
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Pro M. Caelio (In Defense of M. Caelius Rufus)
    who: M. Tullius Cicero; Dio of Alexandria (ambassador of Ptolemy XII), L. Sergius Catiline; M. Caelius Rufus, Clodia, P. Clodius Pulcher
    when: 56 CE
    where: Rome
    context: vices of Roman women; corruption of the youth
    ** (Cic.Cael.)
    P. Clodius Pulcher & Clodia

  • C. Valerius Catullus Poems
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Valerius Catullus
    when: ca.50 BCE, Late Republic
    where: Verona/Sirmio > Rome
    context: Neoteric Poets
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Carmina (Poems)
    who: M. Tullius Cicero (49), M. Caelius Rufus (69), C. Julius Caesar (11); Clodia (“Lesbia” 1-3, 7-8, 85, 92), P. Clodius Pulcher (“Lesbius” 79), Celtiberians (37-39)
    when: ca.50 CE
    where: Rome
    context: vices of Roman women; critique of Roman values
    ** (Catull.)
    unrequited love for for Clodia (“Lesbia”); social critique of Roman society

lectures
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essay
ESSAY 2
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UNIT 8 • IMP. CÆSAR AUGUSTUS (44 BCE - CE 14)
    Persians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    8. Augustus and the Transformation of the Roman World

ancient texts
  • P. Vergilius Maro (Vergil) Aeneid
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. Vergilius Maro
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Mantua (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Maecenas/Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Aeneid 6 & 8
    who: Augustus (and other noble Romans)
    when: 1st CE
    where: Roman empire
    context: visions of the Augustan Age
    VI.918-1222, VIII.822-992 (Verg.Aen.)
    visions of the Augustan Age

  • Imp. Caesar Augustus Accomplishments
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Octavius > C. Julius Caesar Octavianus > Imp. Caesar Augustus
    when: 14 CE, Augustan Age
    where: Ancyra (Gallatia)
    context: autobiography of self-promoting princeps (mounted on the wall of his temple)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Accomplishments of the Deified Augustus (Res gestae divi Augusti), or Monumentum Ancyranum
    who: Augustus
    when: 14 CE, Augustan Age
    where: Roman Empire
    context: accomplishments of first princeps; imperial autobiography
    ** (R.Gest.div.Aug.)
    imperial biography listing the accomplishments (res gestae) of the first princeps

  • Q. Horatius Flaccus (Horace) Odes
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Q. Horatius Flaccus (Horace)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE, Augustan Age
    where: Venusia > Rome
    context: poetry written with imperial patronage (C. Maecenas)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Carmina (Odes)
    who:
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Roman Empire
    context: lyric poetry about the edges of the world
    III.24, IV.15 (Hor.Carm.)
    poetry about the edges of the world

  • C. Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder) Natural History
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder)
    when: 1st CE, Julio-Claudian Age
    where: Comum > Rome
    context: encyclopaedist (note: died at eruption of Vesuvius)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Natural History 7
    who:
    when: 1st CE
    where: known world
    context: marvelous/monstrous variation of man
    VII (Plin.H.N.)
    human oddities

  • T. Macchius Plautus Persa
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Macchius Plautus
    when: ca.185 BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Persa (The Persian, or Iran Man)
    who: Toxillus (Bowman), Saturo (Fat Jack) and Virgo (Cherry),
    when: ca.200 BCE
    where: Athens (Los Angeles)
    context: customs of exotic, far off peoples (e.g. Parthians)
    , or Iran Man I.1-3; II.2-5; III.1; IV (Plaut.Pers.)
    exotic dress, slaves for sale

lectures

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WEEK 9 • PRINCIPATE, I (14-69 CE)
    Egyptians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    9. The Early Principate: Julio-Claudians, Civil War, and Life in the Early Empire

ancient texts
  • Dec. Junius Juvenalis Satires
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Dec. Junius Juvenalis (Juvenal)
    when: 1st/2nd CE, Flavian Era / Era of Good Emperors
    where: Aquinum > Rome
    context: representative of the Latin genre of satire
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Satire 6
    who: Volusius, Diana, Pythagoras
    when: ca.127 CE
    where: Ombi and Tentyra, Canopus/Alexandria
    context: exaggerated tales of barbarous savagery as crtique of Rome
    ** XV (Iuv.)
    social critique of Alexandrians and Egyptians

  • T. Livius (Livy) From the Foundation of the City
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Livius (Livy)
    when: 1st BCE/1st CE
    where: Padova (Cisalpine Gaul) > Rome
    context: Latin speaking elite, imperial patronage (Augustus)
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: From the Foundation of the City (Ab urbe condita) XXIX, cf. CIL I.2.581
    who: Bacchus/Dionysus, Bacchantes, Q. Marcius & Sp. Postumius
    when: 186 BCE BCE
    where: Rome
    context: Roman accusations against Bacchic cult -- intermingling of orders, classes, sexes
    XXIX.8-19** (Liv.) & CIL I.2.581**
    Roman accusations against and suppression of the Bacchic cult

  • L. Apuleius Madauriensis Metamorphoses
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: L. Apuleius Madauriensis
    when: ca.150 CE
    where: Madaura > Carthage > Athens > Rome
    context: Numidian novelist, lived in Sabrata, trained in Carthage and Athens; audience of Latin speaking elite
    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Metamorphoses
    who: Lucius, Photis, Isis
    when: ca.150 CE
    where: Thessaly (witches), North Africa, Egypt, Rome
    context: young man bewitched and transformed (metamorphosis) into a donkey; (slave) labor at the mill; farmer and legionary; restored by true Queen of Heaven (Isis)
    , or Golden Ass 9, 11** (Apul.Met.)
    North African novel; travels to Egypt; cult of Isis

lectures

U01 | U02 | U03 | U04 | U05 | U06 | U07 | U08 | U09 | U10 | U11 | U12 | U13 | U14 | REVIEW

WEEK 10 • PRINCIPATE, II (69-138 CE)
    Judaeans

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    10. Institutionalization of the Principate: Limits of Expansion, Empire and Provinces

ancient texts
  • Vatican Obelisk (CIL VI.882** & AE 1964:255**)
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Roman scribe in Egypt | Rome
    when: ca.30 BCE | 40 CE
    where: Forum Iulium (Alexandria)
    summary: Heliopolitan obelisk, moved to Caesar's Forum in Alexandria, inscribed by Gallus, erased and re-inscribed by Augustus, transported to Rome for spina of imperial circus

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Vatican Obelisk (CIL.6.882)
    who: C. Cornelius Gallus; Imp. Caesar Augustus; Ti. Caesar Augustus
    where: Forum Iulium (Alexandria), Circus of Caius and Nero (Vatican, Rome)
    when: ca.30 BCE | 40 CE
    summary: dedication inscriptions, Gallus erased (damnatio memoriae)

    duplex dedicatory inscription, from spina of circus of Caius and Nero

  • C. Suetonius Tranquilius Life of Nero
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Suetonius Tranquilius
    when: ca.100 CE
    where: Hippo Regius (mod. Anaba) > Rome
    summary: imperial biographer, provincial North African of equestrian ordo

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Life of Nero
    where: Rome
    when: 54-68 CE
    summary: biography of a “bad” emperor
    ** 4-16, 20-29, 33-34, 40-49, 52-57 (Suet.Ner.)
    biography of the emperor/tyrant Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

  • P. Cornelius Tacitus Annales
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. (or C.) Cornelius Tacitus
    when: ca.100 CE
    where: Gallia Narbonenesis > Rome
    summary: imperial historian and biographer, provincial Gaul of the equestrian ordo

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Annales
    who: Augustus, Tiberius, Caius (Caligula), Nero, Agrippina
    where: Rome
    when: 40-70 CE
    summary: depictions of the imperial household
    I.1-16; XIV.1-14 (Tac.Ann.)
    depictions of the imperial household

  • NRSV I Maccabees
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Greek scribe
    when: ca.125 BCE
    where: Jerusalem
    summary: Greek translation of lost Hebrew original

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Maccabees
    where: Jerusalem
    who: Judas Maccabaeus, Antiochus IV Epiphanes
    when: ca.175 BCE
    summary: account of revolt and establishment of Hashmonean kingdom; origin of Hannukah; Hellenization of Jewish communities; treaty as friends and allies of Rome
    ** 1, 8 (I Macc.)
    Rome, Antiochus IV, Judas Maccabeus; alliance with Rome

  • T. Flavius Josephus Jewish Wars
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: T. Flavius Josephus (Yosef ben Matityahu)
    when: ca.80
    where: Jerusalem > Rome
    summary: Greek speaking Roman audience; perspective of collaborating Jewish rebel

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: De bellum Iudaico (Jewish Wars)
    where: Jerusalem, Syria
    when: 67-70 CE
    summary: description of Jewish sects; siege of Jerusalem
    ** I.1.1-5 [1-13], II.8.1-10.1 [117-184],
        V.9.1-10.1 [348-420] (Ios.B.I.)
    Jewish sects; collaborator's account of Jewish Wars

  • Roman stereotypes of Judaism:
    • Damocritus On the Jews, in the Suda s.v. “Damocritus”
    • P. Cornelius Tacitus Histories 5.3-5 (Tac.Hist.)
    • Cassius Dio Cocceianus of Nicaea Roman History 67.14, 68.32 (Cass.Dio)
    • Apion, in T. Flavius Josephus Against Apion 2.80-120 (Ios.Ap.)
    • Plutarchus of Chaeronea Moralia: Convivial Talk 670D) (Plut.Mor.)
    • Diodorus of Sicily Library of History XXXIV/V.1.1-5 (Diod.)

  • Philo Judaeus Embassy to Gaius
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria
    when: ca.40 CE
    where: Alexandria > Rome
    summary: audience of Greek speaking Jewish Romans; combining Jewish thought and Greek philosophy

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Legatio ad Gaium (Embassy to Caligula)
    who: C. Juilius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula), Philo of Alexandria
    where: Alexandria, Rome
    when: ca.40 CE
    summary: madness of Caius, status of Jews in Alexandria and Rome
    1-4 [1-22], 11 [74], 44-45 [349-355] (Phil.Legat.)
    Jews of Alexandria; madness of Gaius (Caligula)

lectures
CLAS105-10

U01 | U02 | U03 | U04 | U05 | U06 | U07 | U08 | U09 | U10 | U11 | U12 | U13 | U14 | REVIEW

WEEK 11 • PRINCIPATE, III (138-193 CE)
    Germans & Dacians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    11. Italy and the Provinces: Civil and Military Affairs (138-235)
ancient texts
  • T. Livius From the Foundation of the City III.26-29 (Liv.)
    Roman virtus

  • Dec. Junius Juvenalis Satires 16 (Iuv.)
    social critique of Roman soldiers

  • P. Cornelius Tacitus Agricola
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. (or C.) Cornelius Tacitus
    when: ca.100 CE
    where: Gallia Narbonenesis > Rome
    summary: imperial historian and biographer, provincial Gaul of the equestrian ordo

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: On the Life and Charachter of Cn. Julius Agricola
    who: Agricola (father-in-law of Tacitus), Domitian
    where: Brittania
    when: 77-84 CE
    summary: success of a good man (Agricola) under a bad emperor (Domitian); liberty of Britons vs tyranny of Rome
    ** (Tac.Agr.) & Germany
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: P. (or C.) Cornelius Tacitus
    when: ca.100 CE
    where: Gallia Narbonenesis > Rome
    summary: imperial historian and biographer, provincial Gaul of the equestrian ordo

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: On the Origin and Location of the Germans
    where: Free Germany, beyond the Rhine
    when: ca.100 CE
    summary: custom of Germans as an inverse reflection of Rome
    ** (Tac.Germ.)
    Romans vs. Celts and Germans

  • C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger) Panegyric to Trajan
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus (Pliny the Younger)
    when: 61-113 CE
    where: Comum > Rome > Bithynia
    summary: equestrian/senatorial survivor of the reign of Domitian; panegyrist and correspondent with the emperor Trajan; nephew of the famous encyclopaedist, the Elder Pliny, whose death in Pompeii he records

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Panegyric of Trajan
    who: Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus; T. Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus
    where: Rome (Bythinia)
    when: 100 CE
    summary: syncophantic attempt to curry favor with the emperor Trajan, whom he contrasts with Domitian
    ** (Plin.Pan.)
    praise poem for the emperor/tyrant Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus

  • Scriptores Historiae Augustae Life of Elagabalus
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: spuriously attributed to Aelius Lampridius, normally to the scriptores ("writers") of the Augustan Histories
    when: ca.4th CE
    where: Rome
    summary: one of the biographies of the later emperors

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Life of Elagabalus
    who: Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, nicknamed Elagabalus (“god of Byblus”) or Heliogabalus (“sun of Byblus”), Julia Maesa, Julia Bassiana
    where: Emesa (Syria, Rome
    when: 218-220 CE
    summary: introduced henotheism (worship of Sol Invictus) in Rome
    ** (SHA Heliogab.)
    biography of the emperor/tyrant M. Aurelius Antoninus Elagabalus (or Heliogabalus)
lectures
CLAS105_11-1
digital map
walkthrough 01 || 02


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WEEK 12 • END OF THE PRINCIPATE (193-284 CE)
    Christians

secondary sources
  • M. T. Boatwright, D. J. Gargola & R. J. A. Talbert The Romans
    12. The Third Century Crisis and the Tetrarchic Restabilization
ancient texts
  • Acts of the Apostles
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Luke the Evagelist
    when: 80-90 CE
    where: Thebes (Boeotia)
    summary: written for Greek-speaking Christian communities

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Acts of the Apostles (primarily the ministry of Paul)
    when: ca.30-65 CE
    who: Saul of Tarsus (St. Paul, ca.5-65 CE, a Greek-speaking Jew/Pharisee? and Roman citizen from Tarsus in Cilicia); Junius Annaeus Gallio (proconsul of Achaea, brother of Seneca - Acts 18); Antonius Felix and Porcius Festus (each prefectus of Judaea)
    where: Tarsus > Jerusalem > Rome -- with stops in Asia Minor (e.g. Galatia, Ephesus) and Achaea (e.g. Philippi, Corinth)
    summary: treatment of Christian communities as a Jewish sect, rights of a Roman citizen (e.g. immune from coercito; the "appeal to Caesar", etc.)
    ** (Acts)
    Romans, Jewish diaspora communities and the Christian sect

  • Q. Septimius Florens Tertullianus Apology
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Q. Septimus Florens Tertullianus
    when: ca.200 CE
    where: Carthage > Rome
    summary: Latin-speaking North African (Numidian/Berber) Christian apologist

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Apology (“defense”)
    where: Roman empire
    when:ca.200
    summary: defense against charges of sex/incest, cannibalism/infanticide and atheism/treason (refusal to worship the emperor)
    ** (Tert.Apol.)
    Roman accusations against incestuous Christian cannibals

  • M. Minucius Felix Octavius
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: M. Minutius Felix
    when: ca.250 CE
    where: Carthage? > Rome
    summary: Latin-speaking North African (Numidian/Berber) Christian apologist; written for non-Christian audience; influenced by M. Tullius Cicero De natura deorum(On the Nature of the Gods)

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Octavius
    where: Roman Empire
    when:ca.200
    summary: defense against charges of sex/incest, cannibalism/infanticide and atheism/treason (refusal to worship the emperor); dialogue between a pagan (Caecilius Natalis) and a Christian (Octavius Januarius)
    ** (Min.Fel.)
    Roman accusations against incestuous Christian cannibals

  • Epiphanius of Constantia Against all Heresies, or Panarion (Epiph.)
    Christian accusations against incestuous Gnostic cannibals

  • Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Perpetua and Saturus
    when: ca.200 CE
    where: Carthage
    summary: autobiography but edited, with added introduction and conclusion

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Passion of the Holy Martyrs Perpetua and Felicitas
    Vivia Perpetua, Felicitas, Saturus
    where: Carthage
    when: ca.200 CE
    summary: Chistians refuse to renounce their faith, refuse to make offerings to emperor, sentenced to death in the arena
    ** (PPF)
    account of a noblwoman's martyrdom

  • Eusebius of Caesarea Life of Constantine
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Eusebius of Caesarea (St. Eusebius)
    when: 260/265-339/40 CE
    where: Caesarea Maritima > Constantinople?
    summary: written for Greek-speaking Roman citizens

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Life of Constantine
    where: Constantinople
    when: 306-337 CE
    summary: biography of Constantine, bordering on hagiography; panegyric-style tribute to a Roman ruler, sent by God to establish Chrstianity as accepted throughout the Roman Empire (allegedly converting on his deathbed)
    (Euseb.Const.)
    panegyric of the emperor Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (Constantine)

lectures
CLAS105 12-1 || 12-2 || 12-3

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WEEK 13 • DOMINATE, I (284-337 CE)
    Ethiopians & Indians

secondary sources
  • Boatwright, Gargola, Lenski & Talbert 2011 The Romans
      13. The Rise of Christianity and the Growth of the Barbarian Threat (324-395)
ancient texts
  • Heliodorus of Emesa Ethiopica
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Heliodorus
    when: ca.300 CE
    where: Emesa (mod. Homs)
    summary: Greek-speaking Roman citizens of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Aethiopica (Ethiopian Matters)
    who: Chariclea and Theagenes (lustful virgins), shepherd-brigands, Charicles (Pythian priest), Sisimithras (gymnosophist "nude wise man," i.e. Brahman), Calasiris, Hydaspes and Persinna
    where: Nile Delta, Elephantine/Syene, Meroë
    when: ca.400 BCE
    summary: incredibly complicated plot begining in media res, with flashbacks, adventures (i.e. threats to virginity) spanning from the Nile Delta to a border war between Egypt and Ethiopia, to the royal palace at Meroë; end of prisoner/child sacrifice
    I, X** (Heliod.Aeth.)
    romance novel of the Greek-speaking Roman East, set in Persian Egypt
  • Iambulus, in Diodorus of Sicily Library of History
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Iambulus, in Diodorus of Sicily
    when: before 1st BC
    where: unknown
    summary: Greek-speaking audience

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: unknown, reorded in the Library of History
    who: merchant Iambulus
    where: Ethiopian island, perhaps Taprobane (mod. Sri Lanka)
    summary:
    II.55-60 (Diod.)
    traveller's tale of a utopian settlement on an Ethiopian island
  • Lucianus of Samasota True History
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Lucianus
    when: ca.150 CE
    where: Samosata (Euphrates River town of Syria)
    summary: Greek-speaking Roman citizens of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Alēthē diēgēmata or Verae Historiae (True Histories)
    who:
    where:
    when:
    summary:
    (Lucian.Ver.hist.)
    early science fiction novel written as a parody of the genre of history
  • Procopius of Caesarea Persian War
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Procopius of Caesarea
    when: ca.550 CE
    where: Caesarea > Constantinople > Ravenna
    summary: Greek speaking Roman audience

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Bellum Persicum Persian War
    who: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus
    where: Constantinople
    when: ca.541-42 CE
    summary: description of the bubonic plague; symptoms; social consequences
    II.22-24** (Procop.Pers.)
    bubonic plague, 541-42 CE
    • Scriptores Historiae Augustae Life of Lucius Verus 8.1-4 (SHA Ver.)
    • L. Cassius Dio Roman History 73.14-15 (Cass.Dio)
    • Claudius Galenus of Pergamum Method of Medicine V.12 (Gal.Med.Phil.)
      Antonine Plague, 165-180, 189
lectures

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WEEK 14 • DOMINATE, II (337-565 CE)
    Huns & Goths

secondary sources
  • Boatwright, Gargola, Lenski & Talbert 2011 The Romans
      14. Final Years of the Western Empire and Rome's Revival in the East
ancient texts
  • Ammianus Marcellinus Accomplishments
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Ammianus Marcellinus
    when: 4th CE
    where: Antioch > Rome
    summary: Greek speaking Roman soldier, military service in West

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Accomplishments (Res gestae)
    where: Rhine / Danube limites
    when: 4th CE
    summary: customs and campaigns vs Goths
    XV.10, XXXI** (Amm.Marc.)
    wars of the later empire, ethnography of the Huns and Goths
  • Pytheas of Massilia On Ocean
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who:
    when:
    where:
    summary:

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title:
    who:
    where:
    when:
    summary:
    , in Strabo of Amaseia Geography 2.5.8 (Strab.)
    geography and ethnography of Thulē
  • Procopius of Caesarea Gothic War
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Procopius of Caesarea
    when: ca.550 CE
    where: Caesarea > Constantinople > Ravenna
    summary: Greek speaking Roman audience

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Gothic War
    who: Flavius Bellisarius, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus
    where: trans-Rhine (Erulians) and Thulē
    when: ca.550 CE
    summary: customs of the Goths
    II.14-15** (Procop.Goth.)
    geography and ethnography of the Erulians and Thulē
lectures

U01 | U02 | U03 | U04 | U05 | U06 | U07 | U08 | U09 | U10 | U11 | U12 | U13 | U14 | REVIEW

REVIEW
secondary sources
  • D. Potter. 2014 Ancient Rome: A New History
    7. The Endings of the Roman Empire (AD 410-642)
ancient texts
  • Life of Aesop
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: ignotus ("unknowm" i.e. anonymous) | Maximus Planudes (editor)
    when: 2nd CE | ca.1200 CE
    where: Greek East | Constantinople
    summary: audience of Greek speaking Romans

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: vita Aesopi (Life of Aesop)
    who: Aesop, Xanthus (and his unnamed wife), Isis (and her unnamed priestess)
    where: Phrygia (Asia Minor)
    when: 6th BCE
    summary: life of a clever slave
    ** (Aesop.)
    life and adventures of a clever slave
  • Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Institutes
    AUTHOR'S CONTEXT
    who: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus (Justinian I the Great)
    when: 6th CE
    where: Constantinople
    summary: legal code established by the emperor Justinian

    NARRATIVE CONTEXT
    title: Institutes
    who: Justinian
    where: Roman Empire
    when: 6th BCE
    summary: collection of civil law applied throughout the Mediterranean
    (Iust.Inst.)
    collection of civil law
essay
ESSAY 4
prompt