blan CLAS 014 :: GARNAND :: DC-Xp
Ancient Mediterranean
IH: OWE IH: Old World Encounters
 O L D   W O R L D   E N C O U N T E R S
 Civilizations in Dialogue before the Modern Era

DC & Field Trip eXperience Points

Earn up to 100 DC eXperience points™ by searching the virtual landscape of Washington DC, e.g. the ethnographic keystones along the exterior of the Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress. You can also earn points by participating in a digital scavenger hunt, by viewing performances of ancient texts, or by following an inspired-by-OWE comfort-food recipe.

E T H N O G R A P H I C   K E Y S T O N E S
chinese keystone
how to :: insert images and commentary (200 words) into DC-Xp blank :: 40Xp
answer :: explain how these keystones function—e.g. discuss the significance
  behind their order in an evolutionary progression from East to West pavilions
  i.e. from rear (17-21) to front entrance pavilion (3-4, 1-2)
        :: explain how using the criterion of biological phenotype (race) compares to
  ancient criteria (i.e. kinship), as found in our authors from Herodotus to Álvares
Library of Congress :: Jefferson Building :: first floor window keystones
Races of Man (William Boyd & Henry Jackson Ellicott, with Otis T. Mason, 1897)
    types taken from Small 1897:12-17 - counter-clockwise from entrance pavillion (layout)
Entrance Pavilion (southern)
• south front :: 3. Brunette European (Roman)
• south side :: 4. Greek
Southwest Pavilion
• west side :: 5. Persian (Iranian), 6. Circassian, 7. Hindu
• south side :: 8. Hungarian (Magyar), 9. Semite (i.e. Jew), 10. Arab (Bedouin)
Southeast Pavilion
• south side :: 11. Turk, 12. Egyptian (Hamite), 13. Abyssinian
• east side :: 14. Malay, 15. Polynesian, 16. Australian
East Pavilion
• center :: 17. Negrito (Indian), 18. Zulu, 19. Papuan, 20. Sudan Negro, 21. Akka (Pygmy)
Northeast Pavilion
• east side :: 22. Fuegian, 23. Botocudo (South America), 24. Pueblo Indian (Zuni)
• north side :: 25. Eskimo, 26. Plains Indian, 27. Samoyed (Finn)
Northwest Pavilion
• north side :: 28. Korean, 29. Japanese, 30. Ainu
• west side :: 31. Burman, 32. Tibetan, 33. Chinese
Entrance Pavilion (northern)
• north side :: 1. Slav (Russian)
• north front :: 2. Blonde European (German)

S C A V E N G E R   H U N T
how to :: insert images & commentary (100 words) into DC-Xp blank :: 20Xp per cluster of four
answer :: explain how these images function in their specific Library of Congress or Supreme Court context, particularly those in bold—e.g. is there any significance behind their position / order (e.g. evoutionary progression)? who is omitted and why?

Library of Congress :: Jefferson Building
Evolution of Civilization - Edwin Howland Blashfield, 1897
interior, lantern collar mural - “Human Understanding“ lifting the veil of ignorance
    Egypt (Written Records), Judea (Religion), Greece (Philosophy), Rome (Administration),
    Islam (Physics), Middle Ages (Modern Languages), Italy (Fine Arts), Germany (Printing),
    Spain (Discovery), England (Literature), France (Emancipation), America (Science)
The Discoverers - George Willoughby Maynard, 1897 :: southwest pavilion
domed ceiling disc - Courage, Valor, Fortitude, Achievement
east lunette - Adventure :: Drake, Cavendish, Raleigh, Smith, Frobisher, Gilbert
    Diaz, Narvaez, Coelho, Cabeza, Verrazano, Bastidas
south lunette - Discovery :: Solis, Orellana, Van Horn, Oieda, Columbus, Pinzon
   Cabot, Magellan, Hudson, Behring, Vespucius, Balboa
west lunette - Conquest :: Pizarro, Alvarado, Almagro, Hutten, Frontenac, De Soto
    Cortes, Standish, Winslow, Phips, Velasquez, De Leon
north lunette - Civilization :: Eliot, Calvert, Marquette, Joliet, Oglethorpe, Las Casas
    Penn, Winthrop, Motolina, Fritz, Yeardley, La Salle
wall tablets - Arts, Letters, Toleration, Spain, Enterprise, Opportunity, Fortune,
    Portugal, India, Eldorado, America, France, Exploration, Dominion, Colonization, England
Library of Congress :: Adams Building
Origin of Writing - Lee Lawrie, 1939
west entrance, central bronze doors (flanking east) - Hermes (Greek), Odin (Viking),
    Ogma (Irish), Itzama (Mayans), Quetzalcoatl (Aztecs), Sequoyah (Cherokee)
east entrance, central bronze doors (flanking west) - Thoth (Egyptian), Ts'ang Chieh or
    Cangjie (Chinese), Nabu (Sumero-Akkadian), Brahma (India), Cadmus (Phoenician),
    Tamurath or Tahurmas (Persia)
Supreme Court :: “Delphic Oracle”
Lawgivers - Adolph A. Weinman, 1935
east frieze - Bill of Rights, L. “Majesty of Law” R. “Power of Government” (with fasces)
south frieze - “Fame” enthroned; Menes of Egypt, with ankh (c. 3200 BCE, Dyn. I);
    Hammurabi of Babylon (c. 1700 BCE); Moses (c. 1200 BCE); “Authority” with fasces;
    Solomon of Israel (c. 900 BCE); Lycurgus of Sparta (c. 800 BCE); Solon of Athens
    (c. 638-558 BCE); “Light of Wisdom”; Draco of Athens (ca.600 BCE); Confucius
    (551-478 BCE); Octavian/Augustus (63 BCE–14 CE); “History” enthroned
north frieze - “Liberty & Peace” enthroned; Justinian of Rome/Byzantium (ca.570-630 CE);
    Muhammad, with the Quran (ca.570-632 CE); Charlemagne of the Franks, Holy Roman
    Emperor (ca.742-814 CE); “Right of Man”; King John of England, with the Magna Carta
    (ca.900 BCE); Louis IX of France (ca.1214-1270 CE); Hugo Grotius (1583-1645 CE);
    “Equity”; Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780); John Marshall (1755-1835 BCE); Napoleon
    (1769-1821 CE); “Philosophy” enthroned

how to :: insert commentary (100 words) into DC-Xp blank :: 20Xp (choose one)
answer :: how does the ancient story or the ancient artifacts fit our contemporary context?

Theater of War
• Sophocles Antigone in Ferguson (“I'm Covered”) :: performance 01 or performance 02

Archaeological Institute of America :: AIA-DC
• Imed ben Jerbania (Institut national du Patrimoine-Tunisie) • Archaeology of North Africa
    Precinct of Ba‘al: New Discoveries & Long-Standing Challenges • 28 Feb 21 @14h00

how to :: insert images of (1) ingredients, (2) your cooking, (3) your eating into DC-Xp blank
    for 20 eXperience points each (maximum two recipies / 40 Xp)

pasta sauce of garlic, olive oil and chili pepper, with anchovy for a garum-umami kick
garum was a Phoenician/Greco-Roman sauce derived from salted, fermented fish intestines
watch Iron Chef: Ambassador
    ___ large pot, ca.11ℓ / 10-12qt
    ___ large sauté pan or wok - optional
    ___ colander or sieve (pasta stay, water go)
    ___ two wooden spatulas or grandma spoons
    ___ ladle or cup with handle
shopping list
wear a mask, keep your distance
    ___ 500g / 16oz pasta (e.g. spaghetti) - $2
    ___ 100ml / 4oz EVO (olive oil) - $7 (400ml/16oz)
    ___ four cloves garlic, or more to taste (fresh only — NO substitutions) - 50¢ (one head)
    ___ one tsp red pepper flakes (or one fresh, thinly sliced pepper), more to taste - $1 (50g/1.5oz)
    ___ 55g / 2oz tin of anchovy fillets** in oil - $1.50 (or 55g / 2oz umeboshi paste)
        **the whole point of the recipe > garum = umami (savory) > substitute umeboshi for vegetarian
        **or go fancy > substitute colatura di alici ($20 100 ml / 3.5 oz) for anchovy fillets
    ___ one heaping handful salt - $1.50 (737g/26oz)
    ___ one handful/bunch fresh parsley – optional
    ___ one can tuna – optional

serves 4 as primo (first course), or 2 as secondo (main course, adding tuna—must be very hungry!)
  • Set a large pot of water on high heat—as it comes to a boil, slice the fresh garlic paper thin
  • Once boiling, add a heaping handful of salt and then add package of pasta (e.g. spaghetti)
  • Cook al dente (i.e. firm when bitten) following package instructions, or 2 minutes from cooked
  • While the pasta is cooking, in a very large sauté pan** combine the olive oil, anchovies (with their oil), garlic, and red pepper flakes over medium-low heat—once the pan is hot, simmer at very low heat, slowly letting the anchovies dissolve and letting the oil absorb all the flavors
        **if you don't have a large pan or wok, combine in a small saucepan
  • When the pasta is al dente, reserve one coffee-cup full of the starchy-salty pasta water
  • Then drain the pasta, immediately transfering it into the skillet with the flavored oil and with the starchy-salty pasta water (or back into the large pot, pouring the oily and starchy-salty on top)
  • Turn the heat to medium-high and toss the pasta constantly for three minutes, until the sauce has emulsified and coats the pasta
  • For pizzaz and/or protein, toss in chopped parsley and/or crumble in a can of tuna – optional

how to :: insert images of (1) ingredients, (2) your cooking, (3) your eating into DC-Xp blank
    for 20 eXperience points each (maximum two recipies / 40 Xp)

toasty-nutty flavored cooking oil with a high smoke point and a long shelf life, it tastes divine (sattvic), and, when carefully strained to remove whey and protein, it provides a lactose-free butter substitute
    ___ small sauce pan, ca.1ℓ / 1-2qt - white enamel optimal
    ___ fine sieve (solids stay, clarified go) and a cheesecloth or coffee filter
    ___ wooden spatula
    ___ 500g / 16oz resealable jar (e.g. pint-sized Mason™ canning jar)
shopping list
wear a mask, keep your distance
    ___ 500g / 16oz or four sticks of unsalted (sweet-cream) butter
    ___ 1-2 slices of bread for toasting

Four sticks of butter produce a good supply of ghee, which lasts about three months or more on the coutertop (out of the sunlight) or a year or more in the refrigerator (you'll use it all up sooner!)
  • Melt the unsalted sweet-cream butter on very low heat and let simmer without stirring—you will hear the bubbles popping as moisture boils off
  • After about twenty minutes, the foamy solids at the top will begin to sink to the bottom and carmelize—use a spatula to push the foam to the side and monitor the solid sinking—as the quantity of bubbles decreases the sonorous quality of their popping will increase
  • After about half an hour, the ghee should be clear (top) and the solids toasty brown (bottom), but the timing depends on the heat source (no worries, because the process is very forgiving); a light-colored enamel saucepan is useful (but not necessary) for tracking
  • Pour the ghee through a fine sieve and a cheesecloth or coffee filter (for lactose-free), or through just the fine sieve (residual lactose likely) set over your 500g/pint jar
  • Scoop out the carmelized milk solids from the sieve to use as a spread on toast (definitely not lactose free!)

how to :: insert images of (1) ingredients, (2) your cooking, (3) your eating into DC-Xp blank
    for 20 eXperience points each (maximum two recipies / 40 Xp)

possibly introduced during the Abbasid Caliphate, the dish takes its name from Persian pulaw and has made its way across the Arab ecumene, from Spain (as paella) to South Asia (pilāv or pilau)
NB this version requires homemade ghee - see previous
    ___ medium pot, ca.3ℓ / 2-4qt (with well-fitting lid)
    ___ sieve (rice stay, water go)
    ___ clean, dry tablespoon (to avoid contaminating ghee)
shopping list
wear a mask, keep your distance
    ___ 400ml / 13.5oz coconut water (NOT coconut milk) - $2
        otherwise substitute 400ml/13.5oz vegetable, beef or chicken broth
    ___ 250g / 8oz long-grain white rice (e.g. Basmati) - $.50/oz
    ___ 1 small (red) onion
    ___ 1 Tbsp ghee (homemade—NO substitutions, see 02 above)
    ___ 8 or 9 cashews
    ___ 8 or 9 raisins (golden)
    ___ 8 or 9 white (or black) peppercorns, crushed (can substitute two large pinch ground)
    ___ 8 or 9 cardamom pods – optional
    ___ 8 or 9 curry leaves – optional
    ___ 1 bay leaf – optional
    ___ 1 cinnamon stick – optional

serves 4 as a side dish (or just gobble massive quantities for comfort)
  • Rinse rice for ca.30 seconds in a sieve, stirring under tap to remove some starch
  • Soak rice for ca.15 min as you chop onions and prepare nuts and raisins
  • Using a clean, dry spoon, add ghee in saucepan, then lower heat to sauté cashews and raisins for ca.2 min, stirring constantly until raisins become plump; remove and reserve
  • Slice onion paper thin and add to ghee, then sauté on low heat for ca.2 min
  • Add spices (pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, bay and curry leaves) and sauté for an additional 2 min, stirring gently to extract and combine the flavors
  • Add rice and increase heat to medium-high, stirring gently but constantly to coat for ca.2 min, until rice begins to get glossy-emulsified
  • Add coconut water (in honor of Ibn Battuta) or broth at a 1 : 1.5 ratio to rice
  • Bring to boil, stir once, then reduce heat, cover tightly, and let simmer unmolested (ca.15 min)
  • Remove from heat and fluff with a fork to pick out cinnamon stick, leaves and pods (which should now be on the surface), then cover again and let stand for 10min
  • Add reserved cashews and raisins, fluff one last time, then serve

how to :: insert images of (1) ingredients, (2) your cooking, (3) your eating into DC-Xp blank
    for 20 eXperience points each (maximum two recipies / 40 Xp)

My favorite Tunisian comfort-food (from my days working at Carthage), built upon a base of chickpeas in their cooking broth, seasoned by harissa (chili pepper paste), with an egg on top
    ___ medium pot, ca.3ℓ / 2-4qt
    ___ small saucepan, ca.1ℓ / 1-2qt
    ___ colander or sieve (chickpea stay, water go)
    ___ mini-strainer or spoon (to skim foam)
shopping list
wear a mask, keep your distance
    ___ 500g / 16oz dried chickpeas
    ___ 1ℓ / 4 cups water
    ___ 1 onion
    ___ 1 hot green chili pepper (e.g. jalapeño)
    ___ 4 cloves fresh garlic
    ___ 2 Tbsp olive oil
    ___ 1 Tbsp ground cumin
    ___ 1 Tbsp Le Phare du Cap Bon® harissa (more to taste — NO substitions)
    ___ 2 eggs (1 per serving)
    ___ ½ hard, dried, stale bagette (authentic version), or any other toasted bread
    ___ 100g / 3.5oz small, authentic danger olives (i.e. with pits) - optional
    ___ 1 can tuna (drained 100g / 3.5oz) - optional
    ___ 1 Tbsp capers - optional
    ___ 1 handful fresh mint or parsley or cilantro - optional

serves 4 as a modest but hearty side, or 4 as a main course (particularly with additions)
  • soak chickpeas 24-48hrs, then drain
  • in medium pot add water and bring to a boil, skimming off foamy effervescence; then lower heat and cover, leaving at a low boil/simmer for ca.2hrs
  • meanwhile, in a small saucepan, soft-boil (4min) or poach 2 eggs (4min)
  • drain saucepan, then simmer onion in olive oil until tranlucent, then adding chili pepper, garlic and ground cumin (ca.10min total)
  • when chickpeas are done (they smush easily between thumb and forefinger), add onion-pepper-garlic-cumin mix, using ½ of the lemon (juice) and/or some of the chickpea cooking water to remove fond (the carmelized bits-o-flavor) from saucepan
  • Cover and let simmer together (15min)
  • Serve in large bowls, over chunks of stale bagette (as old and as rock-hard as possible)
  • Top with a soft-boiled egg (which will continue to cook in the hot soup), ½ Tbsp harissa (more to taste), and ¼ wedge of lemon
  • OPTIONS: add flavor enhancements along the edge of the soup bowl, as on a Cobb salad—
    e.g. ½ can of tuna, capers (Tbsp), fresh flat-leaf herbs (like mint, parsley, or cilantro), etc.

how to :: insert images of (1) ingredients, (2) your cooking, (3) your eating into DC-Xp blank
    for 20 eXperience points each (maximum two recipies / 40 Xp)

Here we have another comfort food that requires ghee, although techincally one should use niter qibe** (prepared as in 02 above, but with spices added in with the butter).
    ___ medium pot, ca.3ℓ / 2-4qt
    ___ clean, dry tablespoon (to avoid contaminating ghee)
shopping list
wear a mask, keep your distance
    ___ 500g / 16oz red lentils
    ___ .5ℓ / 2 cups broth (vegetable or chicken)
    ___ 1 onion, finely diced
    ___ 4 cloves fresh garlic, finely diced
    ___ 1 tomato (preferably Roma), finely chopped
    ___ 3 Tbsp tomato paste
    ___ 2 Tbsp berbere spice mix (track this down at any Ethiopian market — NO substitions)
    ___ 4 Tbsp ghee or niter qibe** (homemade — NO substitions)

serves 2 as a hearty stew, 4 as a side dish, alongside suggested main course of kitfo or gored gored, on injera flatbread (found at Ethiopian markets—as seen on Dr. G's video)
  • Melt 3 tablespoons ghee (or niter kibbeh), then add diced onions and sauté over medium-high heat until begining to brown (ca. 8min)
  • Add diced garlic, tomatoes, and 1 Tbsp berbere, continuing to sauté but reducing heat to a simmer (ca. 8min)
  • Add lentils and stir until coated (ca. 1min)
  • Add broth, increase heat to high and bring to a boil, then cover and reduce to a low simmer, stirring occassionally, adding more water to cover, as needed, until lentils are soft (ca. 30min)
  • Add reserved ghee (1 Tbsp) and berbere (1 Tbsp), then stir and serve on injera (or in a bowl).

** You could boldly try to make niter kibbeh, but you would need a very well-equipped spice rack, since some components are quite hard to find (++), even at Ethiopian markets. Just listing ingredients evokes spice-trade routes. The instructions are the same as for ghee (02) with some modifications.
First, lightly toast the following in a dry saucepan:
    ___ 1 stick cinnamon
    ___ 1 tsp black peppercorns
    ___ 1 tsp fenugreek seeds
    ___ 1 tsp coriander seeds
    ___ ¼ tsp cumin seeds
    ___ 3 whole cloves
    ___ 3 pods black cardomom++ (NOT green)
Then, add your unsalted butter to the toasted spices. along with the following:
    ___ ¼ cup diced onion
    ___ ¼ tsp ground nutmeg
    ___ ¼ tsp ground tumeric
    ___ 1 tsp dried oregano
    ___ 2 Tbsp minced fresh garlic
    ___ 2 Tbsp minced fresh ginger
    ___ 1 Tbsp besobela++ (like basil, but not really)
    ___ 1 Tbsp kosseret++ (like sage, but not really)
After simmering to remove moisture (see 02), you'll have to strain more residue than just milk solids!

F I E L D   T R I P
Earn Field Trip eXperience points™ by taking a virtual tour of the Freer and Sackler Galleries (F|S) of the National Museum of Asian Art (NMAA - Smithsonian Institution). You can also do a virtual tour of the Silk Road with the Sogdians and/or explore a 3D model of the Cosmic Buddha.
how to :: insert images into FT-Xp blank :: 27 artifacts (three eXperience points each / 80Xp)
how to :: insert commentary on two pilgrimages sites into FT-Xp blank (100 words / 10Xp each)
Vairocana - Cosmic Buddha
Reading the Cosmic Buddha
3D modeling of NMAA F1923.15
sogdian caravan
Influencers on the Silk Road
B Y   A U T H O R
B Y   T H E M E